Forensic roots from a Latin word, “forensic” which generally means forum or discussion. In the reign of the Romans, any criminal who has been charged with a crime is presented before an assembly of public folks. Both of the complainant and the defendant are to present their sides through their own speeches. The one who was able to explain his side with fervent delivery and argumentation typically won the case.
Forensic science has a many of subdivisions:
- Forensic pathology – field in which the principles of medicine and pathology are applied to determine a cause of death or injury.,
- Forensic accounting – study and interpretation of accounting evidence
- Forensic anthropology – application of physical anthropology, usually for the recovery and identification of skeletonized human remains.
- Forensic archeology – application of a combination of archaeological techniques and forensic science
- Forensic chemistry – detection and identification of illicit drugs, accelerants
- Forensic DNA analysis – examination of DNA to answer forensic questions such as paternity/maternity testing or placing a suspect at a crime scene
- Forensic entomology – examination of insects in, on, and around human remains to assist in determination of time or location of death
- And many others….
It is important to realize that computer forensics is only one of this subdivision. It is digital, it includes most advanced computer science but still it is only branch of forensic science, an its main goal is submission of the proven claims of scientific methods and strategies to recover any significant digital traces.
Computer Forensic Timeline
- First crimes cases involving computers, mainly financial fraud
- Financial investigators and courts realize that in some cases all the records and evidences were only on computers.
- Norton Utilities, “Un-erase” tool created
- Association of Certified Fraud Examiners began to seek training in what became computer forensics
- SEARCH High Tech Crimes training created
- Regular classes began to be taught to Federal agents in California and at FLETC in Georgia
- HTCIA formed in Southern California
- FBI Magnetic Media Program created. Later it become Computer Analysis and Response Team (CART)
- Acces Data – Cyber Forensic Company formed
- Creation of IACIS, the International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists
- First Seized Computer Evidence Recovery Specialists (SCERS) classes held
- First International Conference on Computer Evidence held
- International Organization on Computer Evidence (IOCE) formed
- The G8 countries in Moscow declared that “Law enforcement personnel must be trained and equipped to address high-tech crimes”.
- In March G8 appointed IICE to create international principles, guidelines and procedures relating to digital evidence
- INTERPOL Forensic Science Symposium
- FBI CART case load exceeds 2000 cases, examining 17 terabytes of data
- First FBI Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory established
- FBI CART case load exceeds 6500 cases, examining 782 terabytes of data
Time line summary
To better understand history of computer forensics some researchers points phases of CF rising:
- Ad-hoc phase witch was characterized by a lack of structure, a lack of clear goals, and a lack of adequate tools, processes and procedures. Furthermore there was huge legal issues on how to proceed with digital evidence
- Structured phase is complex solution for computer forensic, from accepted procedures, special tools developed, and what is more important enabling criminal legislation to wide use of digital evidences.
- Enterprise phase – We can notice it nowadays. Three areas of this phase are real-time collection of evidence, developing field collections tools and Forensics becoming a service in companies.
- Hyechin Blakeslee, Use Of Computer Forensics Technologies In Crime Investigation, Bowie State University, May 2009 Ian
- Charters, The Evolution of Digital Forensics: Civilizing the Cyber Frontier, 1 January 2009
- Sanya-Isijola, Ademuyiwa, THE SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPUTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO LAW ENFORCEMENT PROFESSIONALS,
- Maskokilima blog, TECHNOLOGY TOOLS IN FORENSIC ACCOUNTING INVESTIGATION May 29, 2010